Bills, laws, statutes, and ordinances passed through formal legislative bodies such as congress, state legislatures, and county and city councils. 


Incorporation of clinical or translational scientific findings into new or amended laws serves greater public health.

Requires further modification of translated scientific findings, usually through transdisciplinary collaboration, into feasible and effective laws that serve the greater public health.


Advice from authors on searching for information:

While many U.S. governmental bodies offer current versions of legislation, statutes, and ordinances on their respective websites, connecting specific research findings to subsequent laws often requires searching legislative histories (e.g., hearing transcripts, bill introductions and revisions).

Resources & Data

Organizations, repositories, websites, and other sources where you can find more information:


City of St. Louis Ordinances
The City of St. Louis, Missouri, like many cities and counties, catalogues its ordinances online in a searchable database.

Illinois Compiled Statutes
The Illinois General Assembly and Legislative Reference Bureau provides information on current state statutes.

Missouri General Assembly 
The Missouri Legislature provides information on the status of current legislative items and pieces of legislation by year.

Missouri Revised Statutes 
The State of Missouri offers current and historical versions of its statutes online.


Lexis Nexus
Lexis Nexus provides searchable databases of U.S. Federal and State Statutes, Canadian Legislation, European Union legislation, nations of the Commonwealth legislation, and information on legal cases and rulings in the nations above and others.

Municode provides searchable databases of city and county legal document ordinances across the U.S. Also provides information on tribes and tribal nations that differ from cities and counties that they reside in.

ProQuest Congressional
ProQuest Congressional offers details and background information of U.S. Statutes, Congressional Committee Hearings, Congressional Research Service Reports, and other Congressional publications.

Data Limitations

Challenges you may encounter while searching for information:

Data availability and quality from governmental sources vary across cities, states, and countries. Online research databases may require institutional access agreements or payment.


Articles, books, and other publications in translational science using the indicator:

De Cock KM, Fowler MG, Mercier E, et al. Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource-poor countries: translating research into policy and practice. JAMA. 2000; 283(9):1175-1182. doi: 10.1001/jama.283.9.1175.

Tunis SR, Stryer DB, Clancy CM. Practical clinical trials: increasing the value of clinical research for decision making in clinical and health policy. JAMA. 2003;190:1624-1632. doi: 10.1001/jama.290.12.1624.

White JS, Carney JP. Working with Congress: A Scientist’s Guide to Policy. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science; 2011.

Case Studies

Content coming soon!

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