Government authority or licenses based on intellectual property. Patents may be secured for many components of the research process, including novel laboratory techniques, devices, drugs, or unique biological materials such as cell lines or proteins. Patentable inventions must be novel, useful, and not obvious to trained researchers.


Patents serve as a useful indicator of innovation and future economic potential. Patents also document the use of intellectual property that leads to real-world impacts.


Advice from authors on searching for information:

Searching of patents requires some guidance on databases with additional analysis required. Consult the Help section of each resource for additional information.

Resources & Data

Organizations, repositories, websites, and other sources where you can find more information:



Data Limitations

Challenges you may encounter while searching for information:

Access to self-reported researcher or administrative/in-house data may also be required to locate documentation.


Articles, books, and other publications in translational science using the indicator:

Case Studies

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