Procedural rules formally adopted and mandated by governmental agencies or private or non-profit organizations. These include what are commonly referred to as big “P” policies (governmental) and little “P” policies (non-governmental organizational). Examples include state health board policies, hospital policies, or university policies. Policies can also include government regulations, such as those for food safety, or regulations by other organizations, such as business regulations adopted by chambers of commerce.
Policies are produced by governmental agencies or other organizations to guide decision-making. Findings resulting from clinical and translational science can result in new or amended policies to provide a course of action or statement of principles to guide actions to effect change or build consensus. Policies differ from procedures and guidelines that serve to provide instructions or recommendations.
Advice from authors on searching for information:
Groups such as government agencies (federal, state and local), institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or expert panels, issue policies. Policies are also produced by non-governmental agencies such as hospitals, schools, or specialty organizations. Consult the website of pertinent organizations for policy documents or guidance related to a disease, disorder, or condition.
Review of policy documents is required to locate evidence that findings from clinical and translational science research were used to support the policy. Most policies contain references to the literature to support the recommendations noted in the policy.
Resources & Data
Organizations, repositories, websites, and other sources where you can find more information:
- 97 local Departments of Health in Illinois. Local health departments establish and enforce public health policies and regulations.
- Illinois Department of Health. Local health departments establish and enforce public health policies and regulations.
- Missouri Department of Health & Human Services. Local health departments establish and enforce public health policies and regulations.
- St. Louis City Health Department. Local health departments establish and enforce public health policies and regulations.
- St. Louis County Department of Health and Wellness. Local health departments establish and enforce public health policies and regulations.
- ACP Polices and Recommendations, American College of Physicians (ACP). The ACP Policies and Recommendations contains a collection of ACP’s Clinical Guidelines, Ethical Guidelines, Policy Statements, and copies of testimony and letters to government and non-government officials.
- Health Policy Reference Center, EBSCO (Subscription required). The Health Policy Reference Center database covers all aspects of health policy and related issues. It supports decision-making, planning, and research in a variety of healthcare system areas.
- Lexis Nexus. Lexis Nexus provides searchable databases of U.S. Federal and State Statutes, Canadian Legislation, European Union legislation, nations of the Commonwealth legislation, and information on legal cases and rulings in the nations above and others.
- Policy Statement Database, American Public Health Association (APHA). The APHA’s Policy Statement Database contains policy statements from 1948 to the present and can be searched by year, policy number, or keyword.
- Public Health Policy, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC’s Public Health Policy page includes links to policy resources on various health topics.
- State School Health Policy Database, National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE). The NASBE State School Health Policy Database is a comprehensive set of laws and policies from 50 states on more than 40 school health topics. Originally begun in 1998, and maintained with support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the policy database is designed to supplement information contained in CDC’s School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS).
Challenges you may encounter while searching for information:
There is no single resource for all policies produced by governmental bodies or other organizations. Access to self-reported researcher or administrative/in-house data may be required to locate documentation.
Articles, books, and other publications in translational science using the indicator:
- EVIPNet in action: 10 years, 10 stories. [Internet]. World Health Organization; October 2016.
- Spasoff RA. Epidemiologic Methods for Health Policy. New York: Oxford University Press; 1999.